The main types of materials that are industrially welded using ultrasonic welding are: pure aluminum-pure aluminum, pure aluminum-aluminum alloy, aluminum-copper, electrolytic copper-electrolytic copper, purple copper-copper-zinc alloy, purple copper-copper-beryllium alloy, brass – brass, purple copper – nickel (metal coating), purple copper – silver (metal coating), purple copper – gold (usually as a metal coating)
Thus it is possible to perform welding of mixed materials, e.g. aluminum and bronze, or bright or metal-coated parts (welding of sheet, wire or stranded wire). In order to avoid undesirable welds, ultrasonic welding of aluminum materials has special requirements for the surface of the acoustic tube. Metallic materials with higher strength than aluminum and bronze, e.g. iron, nickel, titanium materials, require higher conversion energy in the welding area. This can sometimes result in higher thermal and mechanical stresses on the working surface of the sonotube. In addition, ultrasonic welding can be used to join sheets and coated plastics, sintered hollow core molds and microporous metallic plastics produced by casting. The substrate materials for porous metal materials can be aluminum, magnesium, bronze, nickel and titanium as well as mixed connections with steel.
In ultrasonic welding, the mechanical load applied to the material can sometimes cause local damage to the material. Especially when the dimensions of the part to be welded are not very good, the natural vibration of the part to be welded can create cracks in the weld or in the substrate material. In terms of the principle of ultrasonic welding, the quality of the surface determines the tribological properties and physical metallurgical processes of its joint formation, therefore, special attention must be paid to a good treatment of the surface to be welded.
Spot weld seam welding of aluminum and copper alloys.
Welding of aluminum materials and other mixed materials, ultrasonic welding of metals is mainly used for the combination of various materials based on aluminum and purplish copper. Connections of bronze and steel, or aluminum and steel can also be performed. The usual thickness of work is 0.1-0.6 MM. In the case of special applications, the plate can be up to 1 MM, when the application is a soft material, sometimes available filter material.
Finishing of different surfaces of purple copper material. People have performed ultrasonic welding of semi-finished materials of wire and plate made of purplish copper material. Good results have been obtained in welding between nickel and silver plating, and good results have been obtained in the study of a part of the material plated with tin. In this regard, the mechanism of joint formation depends decisively on the hundred degree of the coating and the geometry of the joint.
Soldering of copper stranded wires has also been studied for soldering between copper stranded wires and other copper materials. In contrast to ultrasonic welding, which has been used in many fabrications to smuggle stranded wire up to 70 square millimeters, it is more difficult to weld copper stranded wire to solid materials. In the ultrasonic welding method, the strength of the friction decreases the farther away from the acoustic tube due to the cushioning effect of the many coupling points in the stranded wire. Accordingly, the cross-sectional area of the connection obtainable between the stranded wire and the connected parts is smaller than the joint between the stranded wire and the connected parts compared to the connection between the stranded wire and the connected parts.
For the connection of plastic insulated copper wires with a diameter of 0.3-2.0 MM, ultrasonic welding is used, during which the insulated wire is removed from the joint and the wire is soldered to the connected part.
Ultrasonic welding of metallic foam materials. The ultrasonic welding process is absolutely suitable for the manufacture of combined materials of metallic foams, because it has a minimal effect on the base material. Ultrasonic welding is possible not only for spot or seam welding, but also for toroidal welding. With this technique, threaded bolts can be welded to metal foam parts, thus using foam parts that can be conveniently attached to common parts.
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