Introduction to the ultrasonic metal welding process

Ultrasonic Metal Welding Machine

Ultrasonic metal welding is a common technique in automobile wire harnesses, and the principle is to reassemble the surface of the welded material using ultrasonic high-frequency vibrations. Ultrasonic metal welding technology provides a reliable connection to the wiring harnesses inside the vehicle, making the electrical connection system stable and reliable after welding. The low internal resistance and low-temperature rise at the wiring harness joint provides a higher level of safety, especially for new energy vehicles with fast charging and temperature rise.

The Types of Ultrasonic Metal Welding Processes

There are two types of ultrasonic metal welding processes: one is bilateral welding, another is unilateral welding.

  • bilateral welding

bilateral welding
  • unilateral welding
unilateral welding

According to the welding method, they can be classified as:

Embedding: Embedding means that the welding head squeezes the metal part into the plastic hole under pressure

Riveting: Riveting involves the mechanical riveting of two objects by pressing a vibrating welding head against a protrusion of the object to make it thermally fused to a rivet

Spot welding: Spot welding refers to the welding of objects where the welding line is not easily designed to achieve a fusion effect.

The Requirements of Ultrasonic Metal Welding Process

The requirements of Automotive wire harness ultrasonic welding machine welding :

Wires should preferably not be tinned or galvanised, although they can be welded in some cases, the results will still be compromised.

wire harness welding machines require good quality control software to make quality judgements on each weld joint.

The wire head fixture gap requirement is ≦0.02mm. ultrasonic welding is a high energy density and a large gap will result in a stuck wire.

Ultrasonic wire harness welding machine is suitable for welding metals such as copper, aluminium, nickel, silver and gold, specific types of metals that can be welded can be referred to in this article.

The Welding Processes of Welding Machine

The pressure of the welding head on the plastic surface.

20,000 to 40,000 vibrations per second of the welding head.

The vibration generates frictional heat to melt and bond the material.

The Factors Affecting the Ultrasonic Welding Processes

Influence of amplitude: Within a suitable amplitude range, an increase in amplitude is beneficial to the diffusion of ultrasonic energy, thus increasing the strength of the welded joint.

Welding time: For a good welded joint, the appropriate welding time must be chosen. Both too long and too short welding times will cause a reduction in the strength of the welded joint.

Influence of welding pressure: a certain range of pressure can achieve better welding strength.

Influence of the falling speed of the welding head: the faster the falling speed of the welding head under certain conditions, the higher the strength of the welded joint achieved. In the ultrasonic welding process, a high drop speed results in a high contact pressure, which facilitates close contact at the welding interface and adequate molecular diffusion.

Pressure-holding time and pressure: After the ultrasonic wave has stopped, to make the welded specimens curled tightly against each other, so that the two workpieces can be well welded together, it is necessary to maintain a certain pressure for a certain period, the required time and pressure is the pressure-holding time and pressure.

The holding time and pressure have a positive effect on the strength of the welded joint, but compared to other process parameters, the holding time and pressure have a small effect on the strength of the welded joint.

The Advantages of Ultrasonic Welding Processes

  1. Low energy consumption and no pollution.
  2. Welded wiring harness with low resistance. 
  3. Low temperature, which is only generated by friction and is only 1/3 or 1/2 of the melting point of the metal. low temperatures do not destroy the insulation of the wire and do not damage the metal, and also allow very thin metals to be welded to thick metals.
  4. Spark-free welding, close to cold welding.
  5. No flux required, longer tool head life, better than crimping, soldering or resistance welding.
  6. Ultrasonic wire harness welding machine with advanced touch screen control, display and monitoring of parameters, integrated system with constant welding parameters to guarantee welding quality.
  7. Ultrasonic wire harness welding machine with the safe and solid operation and automatic calibration function.
  8. Easy and fast mould change for ultrasonic wire harness welding machines, reducing downtime and production costs.
  9. Easy operation of the ultrasonic wire harness welding machine and low personnel training costs.

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