Ultrasonic metal welding also has a wide range of applications in automotive harness manufacturing, electronics industry, electrical manufacturing, preparation of new materials, aerospace and nuclear energy industry, sealing technology for advanced parts, commonly used in the welding of transistor or integrated circuit leads and new energy automotive harnesses. When used for sealing welding of drugs and explosive materials, it can avoid the pollution of drugs caused by general welding methods due to dissolved materials and so on, and will not cause explosions due to heat or sparking. For China’s construction of resource-saving, environment-friendly modern society, ultrasonic metal welding will play a great role in promoting.
Ultrasonic metal welding was discovered by chance in the 1830s. At that time, when doing current spot welding electrodes with ultrasonic vibration tests, it was found that no current could be welded on, thus developing ultrasonic metal cold welding technology.
One of the more accepted explanations of the principle of ultrasonic metal welding is that when welding metal materials, a super-generated frequency vibration current is generated by an ultrasonic generator, which is then converted into elastic mechanical vibration energy by a transducer using the inverse piezoelectric effect, and fed to the welded part through the acoustic system. The contact interface between the two welded workpieces is destroyed by friction, temperature rise, and deformation under the combined effect of static pressure and elastic vibration energy, resulting in the destruction of an oxide film or other surface adhesions and the infinite proximity of metal atoms between pure interfaces, resulting in bonding and diffusion for a reliable connection.
The use of ultrasonic generators, transducers, and amplifiers converts electrical energy into high-frequency mechanical motion, and in the process of inducing friction, deformation energy and limited temperature rise between the metal weldments through the welding head. Solid-state welding is achieved without melting with the help of the surface. Therefore it effectively overcomes the phenomenon of spatter and oxidation produced by resistance welding. Green and environmentally friendly without any pollution. Ultrasonic metal welding machines can be used for single-point welding, multi-point welding, and short strip welding of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, and other non-ferrous wire or sheet materials. It can be widely used in the welding of silicon leads, fuse pieces, electrical leads, lithium battery pole pieces, and pole lugs.
The welding principle of ultrasonic welding can be divided into two categories: ultrasonic plastic welding and ultrasonic metal welding, the former is acoustic impedance welding, the static pressure of the welding head is parallel to the vibration direction of the welding head and perpendicular to the welded parts, while the static pressure of the welding head of the latter is perpendicular to the vibration direction of the welding head and also perpendicular to the welded parts. It is a special kind of solid-phase connection that, through high-frequency friction, causes the welded part to warm up, deform and flow plastically.
As the power required for welding increases exponentially with the thickness and hardness of the workpiece, high-power ultrasonic welding machines are difficult and costly to manufacture. With further increases in welding power, not only will the design and manufacture of the acoustic system face a series of difficult problems, but it may not be possible to achieve the desired process results. Therefore, currently limited to welding wire, foil, sheet, and other thin parts. The welding materials are mostly copper, aluminum, nickel, gold, silver, and other cold metals, such as lithium battery lug welding, automotive wiring harness welding, copper wire, and copper terminal welding. Aluminum foil welding.
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